Timeline of zoophilia

The timeline of zoophilia covers the history of zoophilia and bestiality among humans and non-human animals. (source wikipedia)

Before the Common Era

23rd millennium BCE

230th century BCE

2nd millennium BCE

18th century BCE

13th century BCE

  • c. 1,300 BCE c. 1,201 BCE The Hittite laws are written for the Hittite Empire, which punished male bestiality with a pig, a dog, or a cow with capital punishment, while male bestiality with a horse or a mule only prohibited the man from approaching the king or becoming a priest.

1st millennium BCE

7th century BCE

6th century BCE 4th century BCE

  • c. 538 BCE 330 BCE The Book of Deuteronomy is written during this period and within the text it states the following:

"Cursed be anyone who lies with any animal." All the people shall say, "Amen!"

Torah / Bible, Book of Deuteronomy, Chapter 27, Verses 21

6th century BCE 3rd century BCE

  • c. 538 BCE c. 250 BCE The Book of Leviticus is written during this period and within the text it states the following:

"You shall not have sexual relations with any animal and defile yourself with it, nor shall any woman give herself to an animal to have sexual relations with it: it is perversion. Do not defile yourselves in any of these ways, for by all these practices the nations I am casting out before you have defiled themselves."

Torah / Bible, Book of Leviticus, Chapter 18, Verses 2324

"If a man has sexual relations with an animal, he shall be put to death; and you shall kill the animal. If a woman approaches any animal and has sexual relations with it, you shall kill the woman and the animal; they shall be put to death, their blood is upon them."

Torah / Bible, Book of Leviticus, Chapter 20, Verses 1516

The Book of Exodus is written during this period and within the text it states that:

"Whoever lies with an animal shall be put to death."

Torah / Bible, Book of Exodus, Chapter 22, Verse 19

5th century BCE

"In my lifetime a strange thing occurred in this district: a he-goat had intercourse openly with a woman."

Herodotus, Histories, Book 2, Chapter 46, Section 4

1st century BCE

  • c. 27 BCE At the beginning of the Roman Empire, legal retribution for bestiality was required only for sodomy, under which bestiality was included.

Common Era

1st millennium

7th century

8th century

2nd millennium

13th century

13th century 14th century

  • c. 1,2501,350 In the Kingdom of Sweden, the provinces of Dalarna, Uppland, Vstmanland enacts capital punishment for those convicted for male bestiality were buried alive for both the perpetrator and the animal, while the province of Sdermanland in the Kingdom of Sweden stipulates the male perpetrator could be either buried alive or burned at the stake.
  • c. 1,272 The Establishments of Saint Louis is enacted in the Kingdom of France, making bestiality a capital punishment.

14th century

  • 1,350 In the Kingdom of Sweden, the Country Law of Magnus Eriksson was enacted, replacing all provisional laws in the country with a national law (excluding cities). The law lacked canonical code, so the Church code of the Uppland provisional law was used alongside the Country Law of Magnus Eriksson, making male bestiality a capital punishment in the Kingdom of Sweden, excluding cities.

15th century

16th century

17th century

  • 1620 The Duchy of Prussia makes sodomy a capital punishment.
  • 1683 The Sixth Book of Danish Law of 1683 makes bestiality in Kingdom of Denmark a capital punishment with a penalty of burning.
  • 1687 The Norwegian Code (Book 6, chapter 13, section 15) makes bestiality in Kingdom of Norway a capital punishment with a penalty of burning.
  • 1692 The last execution for bestiality was ordered by Paris Parlement in the Kingdom of France.

18th century

  • 1711 Kingdom of Denmark makes those convicted of bestiality should be strangled as well as burned.
  • March 1724 In the Kingdom of France, an execution is carried out for someone accused of blasphemy and bestiality; however, he was executed only for blasphemy.
  • 23 January 1736 In the Kingdom of Sweden, the Civil Code of 1734 was enacted, making both male and female bestiality a capital punishment.
  • 1768 The Constitutio Criminalis Theresiana (Article 74) makes bestiality in the Habsburg Monarchy punishable with capital punishment by burning.
  • 1779 Thomas Jefferson wrote a law in Commonwealth of Virginia which contained a punishment of castration for those who engage in bestiality. However, what was intended by Jefferson's law was a liberalization of the sodomy laws in Virginia at that time, which continued to prescribe capital punishment by hanging as the maximum penalty for the crime of bestiality in the commonwealth. Jefferson's law was rejected by the Virginia Legislature.
  • 1787 The Constitutio Criminalis Josephina reduced the crime of bestiality in the Habsburg Monarchy from the penalty of capital punishment to a misdemeanor.
  • 25 September 6 October 1791 The French Penal Code of 1791 is adopted in the Kingdom of France, legalizing bestiality.
  • 1 June 1792 The Commonwealth of Kentucky becomes a U.S. state and receives all laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia, making bestiality a capital punishment in the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
  • 17921798 The French Republic adopts the Penal Code of 1791 and applies it to other territories annexed by France:

19th century

  • June 1802 - The Mississippi Territory enacts a new code that recognizes common-law crimes, thus making bestiality a capital offense.
  • 18101811 The French Penal Code of 1810 reaffirms the legalisation of bestiality and is incorporated into laws of the French Empire, including territories such as:
  • 27 June 1828 A new law in England determines that emission is not necessary to complete bestiality, making both male and female bestiality a capital punishment.
  • 1829 The Offences Against the Person (Ireland) Act 1829 is enacted in the county of Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, making bestiality a capital punishment.
  • 1 January 1835 The Digest of Laws of the Russian Empire (excluding the Duchy of Finland) criminalizes bestiality.
  • 1838 Iceland adopts the Sixth Book of Danish Law of 1683 makes bestiality a capital punishment with a penalty of burning, along with strangling.
  • 20 August 1848 The Norwegian Penal Code of 1848 (Chapter 18, section 21) in Kingdom of Norway reduces the punishment for engaging in bestiality from capital punishment to a sentence of hard labor of the fifth degree.
  • 14 April 1851 The Prussian Penal Code (Paragraph 143) in the Kingdom of Prussia makes bestiality punishable with imprisonment of six months to four years, with the further punishment of a prompt loss of civil rights.
  • 1852 The Austrian Empire enacts 130 which punishes bestiality with a penalty of a maximum of five years in prison.
  • 1 November 1861 The countries of England, Ireland, and Wales in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland adopts the Offences Against the Person Act 1861, reducing the penalty of bestiality from capital punishment to life imprisonment.
  • 1864 In the Kingdom of Sweden, the Penal Code of 1864 (Chapter 10, section 10) was enacted, reducing the penalty for bestiality with a punishment of two years' hard labor.
  • 1866 The Penal Code of 1866 in the Kingdom of Denmark reduces the penalty for the crime of male bestiality from capital punishment to a sentence of eight months to six years' hard labor, which is further reduced with one-third penalty was served in solitude.
  • 1869 The Penal Code of 1869 (Section 178) in Iceland makes male bestiality punishable with hard labor.
  • 22 June 1869 The Dominion of Canada reduces the penalty for bestiality from capital punishment to a term of two years to life.
  • 1 January 1871 The Criminal Code (175 StGB) of the North German Confederation takes effect, making bestiality punishable with imprisonment, with the further punishment of a prompt loss of civil rights.
  • 1 January 1872 The Imperial Criminal Law (175 StGB) takes effect in the German Empire, making bestiality punishable with imprisonment, with the further punishment of a prompt loss of civil rights.
  • 1878 The Kingdom of Hungary adopted a penal code which criminalizes bestiality with a maximum of one year in prison.
  • 1894 The Penal Code of the Grand Duchy of Finland (Chapter 20, section 12) reduced the penalty of bestiality from capital punishment to at least two years' imprisonment. It also criminalized attempting bestiality with a penalty of at least two years' imprisonment.

20th century

  • 1903 The Russian Empire legalizes bestiality.
  • 1905 The Norwegian Penal Code of 1902 (Section 213) makes bestiality in the Kingdom of Norway punishable by imprisonment up to one year; however, prosecutions would only apply when public interest demands.
  • 19221991 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics replaces Russian Empire/First Russian Republic; Soviet criminal code does not alter 1903 legalization of bestiality. In most cases, this has also remained the case in post-Soviet states (since 1991).
  • 1 January 1933 The Kingdom of Denmark legalizes male bestiality.
  • 1935 The Criminal Code of the German Empire is moves the prohibition on bestiality to 175b StGB, along with making it a crime punishable by five years in prison.
  • 12 August 1940 The Kingdom of Iceland legalizes male bestiality.
  • 1 July 1944 The Republic of Sweden legalizes bestiality.
  • 25 June 1968 The Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin legalizes bestiality.
  • 15 January 1971 The Republic of Finland legalizes bestiality.
  • 16 August 1971 The Republic of Austria legalized bestiality.
  • 21 April 1972 The Kingdom of Norway legalizes bestiality.
  • 1 January 1974 The U.S. state of Texas legalizes bestiality.
  • 8 June 1989 The U.S. state of South Carolina expands the penalty for commission of certain sexual offenses, including bestiality, to ten years in prison and/or a $10,000 fine if they occur within hundred yards of a day care facility.
  • 14 June 1993 The State of South Carolina bans foster care by persons convicted of bestiality.
  • 29 June 1994 The State of South Carolina creates a sex offender registry program and includes those convicted of bestiality.
  • 1990 1999 The first zoophile rights group, called Equality for All (EFA), is created.

3rd millennium

21st century

  • 1 May 2004 The Sexual Offences Act 2003 is enacted in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, reducing the penalty of bestiality from life imprisonment in the countries of England, Northern Ireland, and Wales to a penalty of a maximum of two years in prison for conviction on indictment or a maximum of six months in prison and a fine for summary conviction.
  • 26 January 2009 The Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 (Section 63) makes zoophile porn illegal in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with a maximum of twelve months' imprisonment in England or six months' imprisonment in Northern Ireland, a fine, or both on summary conviction or a maximum of two years' imprisonment, a fine, or both on conviction on indictment.
  • 2009 Zoophiles Commitment for Tolerance and Awareness, later called the Zoophiles for Ethical Treatment of Animals (ZETA), a zoophile rights organization, is created in Germany.
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